The Paris Agreement is the first universal and legally binding global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. To contribute to the objectives of the agreement, countries presented broad national climate change plans (national contributions, NDCs). These are not yet sufficient to meet the temperature targets, but the agreement sets out the way forward. The EU and its Member States are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. For the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries, which have escaped at least 55% of global emissions, had to deposit their instruments of ratification. It will also allow the parties to gradually increase their contribution to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement. The agreement recognises the role of non-stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. The EU`s national contribution (NSP) under the Paris Agreement is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990, as part of its broader climate and energy policy framework by 2030.
All key EU legislation to achieve this goal was adopted before the end of 2018. The EU is at the forefront of international efforts to combat climate change. It played an important role in mediating the Paris Agreement and continues to play a global leadership role. The Paris Agreement establishes a global framework to avoid dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to well below 2°C and making efforts to limit it to 1.5°C. It also aims to strengthen the capacity of countries to cope with the effects of climate change and to support them in their efforts. The Paris Agreement is a bridge between current policy and climate neutrality before the end of the century. It covers all key areas, including transparency, financing, reduction and adaptation, and provides flexibility to parties that need it given their capabilities, while allowing them to implement and report on their commitments in a transparent, comprehensive, comparable and cohess manner. The Katowice package, adopted at the UN Climate Change Conference (COP24) in December 2018, contains common and detailed rules, procedures and guidelines that regulate the Paris Agreement. Outside of formal government negotiations, countries, cities and regions, businesses and members of civil society around the world are taking steps to accelerate the cooperative fight against climate change to support the Paris Agreement as part of the Global Climate Change Agenda. . .